Introduccion al reino fungi

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Introduction to Fungi
This new edition of the universally acclaimed and widely used textbook on fungal biology has been completely rewritten, drawing directly on the authors’ research and teaching experience. The text takes account of the rapid and exciting progress that has been made in the taxonomy, cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, pathology andecology of the fungi. Features of taxonomic significance are integrated with natural functions, including their relevance to human affairs. Special emphasis is placed on the biology and control of human and plant pathogens, providing a vital link between fundamental and applied mycology. The book is richly illustrated throughout with specially prepared drawings and photographs, based on livingmaterial. Illustrated life cycles are provided, and technical terms are clearly explained. Extensive reference is made to recent literature and developments, and the emphasis throughout is on whole-organism biology from an integrated, multidisciplinary perspective. John Webster is Professor Emeritus of the School of Biosciences at the University of Exeter, UK. Roland W.S. Weber was a Lecturer in theDepartment of Biotechnology at the University of Kaiserslautern, Germany, and is currently at the Fruit Experiment station (OVB) in Jork, Germany.

Introduction to Fungi
University of Exeter


Roland Weber
University of Kaiserslautern

Third Edition


Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo CambridgeUniversity Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York Information on this title: © J. Webster and R. W. S. Weber 2007 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, noreproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published in print format 2007 eBook (EBL) ISBN-13 978-0-511-27783-2 ISBN-10 0-511-27783-0 eBook (EBL) ISBN-13 ISBN-10 ISBN-13 ISBN-10 hardback 978-0-521-80739-5 hardback 0-521-80739-5 paperback 978-0-521-01483-0 paperback 0-521-01483-2

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for thepersistence or accuracy of urls for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

To Philip M. Booth

Preface to the first edition Preface to the second edition Preface to the third edition Acknowledgements page xiii xv xvii xix

Chapter 1
1.1 1.2 1.31.4 1.5


1 3 14 22 32

What are fungi? Physiology of the growing hypha Hyphal aggregates Spores of fungi Taxonomy of fungi

Chapter 2
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Protozoa: Myxomycota (slime moulds)

40 40 41 45 47

Introduction Acrasiomycetes: acrasid cellular slime moulds Dictyosteliomycetes: dictyostelid slime moulds Protosteliomycetes: protostelid plasmodial slimemoulds Myxomycetes: true (plasmodial) slime moulds

Chapter 3
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Protozoa: Plasmodiophoromycota

54 54 62 64

Introduction Plasmodiophorales Control of diseases caused by Plasmodiophorales Haptoglossa (Haptoglossales)

Chapter 4
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

Straminipila: minor fungal phyla

67 68 70 71

Introduction The straminipilous flagellum HyphochytriomycotaLabyrinthulomycota

Chapter 5
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

Straminipila: Oomycota

75 79 95 115 125

Introduction Saprolegniales Pythiales Peronosporales Sclerosporaceae



Chapter 6
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6


127 134 145 150 153 162

Introduction Chytridiales Spizellomycetales Neocallimastigales (rumen fungi) Blastocladiales Monoblepharidales…